Necesita saber: segunda dosis de refuerzo de COVID-19

El 29 de marzo de 2022, la Administración de Drogas y Alimentos de los EE. UU. (FDA) autorizó una segunda dosis de refuerzo de las vacunas Pfizer-BioNTech o Moderna COVID-19 para personas de 50 años o más y ciertas personas inmunodeprimidas (aquellas con un sistema inmunológico debilitado). sistema). Tras la autorización de la FDA, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés) actualizaron sus recomendaciones de vacunas contra el COVID-19 para permitir que ciertas personas inmunocomprometidas y mayores de 50 años que recibieron una dosis inicial de refuerzo hace al menos cuatro meses sean elegibles para otro ARNm refuerzo (o segunda dosis de refuerzo). Además, los CDC ampliaron sus segundas recomendaciones de dosis de refuerzo de ARNm para incluir también a adultos que recibieron una vacuna primaria y una dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna COVID-19 de Johnson & Johnson hace al menos cuatro meses.

Este documento incluye información sobre la dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna contra el COVID-19 y recomendaciones para quienes son elegibles para recibir una segunda dosis de refuerzo . Si aún no completó su serie primaria de vacunas contra el COVID-19 y/o recibió su primera dosis de refuerzo , entonces actualmente no es elegible para una segunda dosis de refuerzo.

Currently, there are three populations eligible to receive a second booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine. These populations include people who may be at an increased risk of severe illness, hospitalization and death due to COVID-19 infection. According to the FDA, current evidence suggests some waning of protection over time against serious outcomes from COVID-19 in older and immunocompromised individuals. People need to consider their age and health status when choosing whether or not to receive an additional booster dose. North Dakotans are encouraged to have a conversation with their doctor or a trusted health care provider to make sure they are making the best decision for themselves.

1. All adults ages 50 years and older

All adults ages 50 and older are eligible to receive a second booster dose of an mRNA (Pfizer or Moderna)  COVID-19 vaccine at least four months after their first booster dose of any approved or authorized COVID-19 vaccine.

2. All individuals 12 years and older who are immunocompromised

All individuals age 12 or older who are moderately or severely immunocompromised are eligible for a second booster dose of an mRNA (Pfizer or Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine at least four months after their first booster dose. Currently, adolescents aged 12-17 years old are only authorized to receive the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine for all doses including their primary series, additional dose and booster doses. If you are moderately or severely immunocompromised and have not received your additional dose, you must do so before requesting a booster dose. Please refer to your health care provider if you have questions regarding if your medical condition qualifies you as a patient who is moderately or severely immunocompromised.

3. All adults 18-49 years old who have received two doses of Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19               vaccine

All adults 18-49 years old who received the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine for both their primary dose and first booster dose at least four months ago are now eligible to receive a second booster dose of an mRNA (Pfizer or Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine. This guidance does NOT include adults who received the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine for their primary series but then received a first booster dose of an mRNA (Pfizer or Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine.

There are a number of reasons why you may want to consider receiving a second booster dose if you are eligible. Your decision will depend on your personal level of risk associated with COVID-19 infection, including whether or not you are at an increased risk of severe illness, hospitalization and death, as well as your age and when you received your last dose of COVID-19 vaccine.

A second booster may lower your risk of dying due to COVID-19.

Data from Israel indicates an additional (second) booster dose is safe and lifesaving. Mortality due to the omicron variant in this data set was significantly lower—a 78% reduction—in those ages 60 and older in Israel who received a second booster dose.

Your risk of severe COVID-19 illness increases with age.

The older you are, the greater the benefit a second booster dose may bring you, because protection provided by vaccine booster shots wane over time. Throughout the pandemic, older adults have been more likely to become severely ill from COVID-19. Older adults with COVID-19 are at increased risk of requiring hospitalization, intensive care admission or a ventilator to help them breathe. Additionally, older adults have a 25x-340x greater risk of dying, depending on their age, from COVID-19 compared to individuals aged 18-29 years old. Older adults and individuals living in long term care facilities (such as assisted living and skilled nursing homes) are encouraged to speak with their health care provider regarding receiving a second booster dose.

Vaccine effectiveness after your first booster may begin to wane over time.

The vaccine effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine has been shown to decrease over time. Therefore, public health officials and health care workers strongly recommend the importance of staying up to date with your immunizations and getting booster doses when you are eligible. During the peak of the omicron wave, adults were 94% less likely to end up on a ventilator or die from COVID-19 after receiving three shots (or after their first booster dose) when compared to those who had only received two shots. However, this observed level of protection may begin to decrease over time.

A recent CDC analysis shows evidence of waning immunity against COVID-19 emergency room visits and hospitalizations visits during the omicron-predominant period. Two months after a third dose (or first booster dose), people were 91% protected against hospitalization. Four months after that dose, protection dropped down to about 78%. Fortunately, a study conducted in Israel found recipients of both Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines had a ∼9-10-fold increase in IgG and neutralizing titers within two weeks of second booster dose vaccination, restoring titers to those measured after the third vaccine dose. Thus, an additional booster dose can provide additional protection.

Data suggests a second booster dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine improves protection against severe COVID-19 and is not associated with any new safety concerns. The FDA has determined the known and potential benefits of a second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose with either of these vaccines outweigh their known and potential risks in these populations.

North Dakotans are encouraged to have a conversation with a trusted health care provider regarding whether or not to receive a second booster dose. Depending on your age, health status, when you had your prior infection and which COVID-19 variant you likely had your health care provider may determine it is best to delay a second booster dose.

The CDC recommends people be vaccinated even if previously testing positive for COVID-19. Individuals may choose to delay vaccination for 90 days after an infection. Emerging evidence suggests the best protection against COVID-19 illness is hybrid immunity, having both vaccination and prior infection. It is best to be vaccinated prior to be infected to reduce severe outcomes from COVID-19.

Es tu salud y es tu decisión.

El Departamento de Salud de Dakota del Norte (NDDoH) trabaja para proporcionar recursos y materiales educativos al público para que cada individuo pueda tomar decisiones educadas e informadas con respecto a las vacunas contra el COVID-19 y la salud personal. Estas nuevas recomendaciones de segunda dosis de refuerzo les dan a los miembros de nuestra comunidad la libertad de elegir si les gustaría recibir o no otra dosis de la vacuna COVID-19 dependiendo de sus propios factores de riesgo.

Conozca sus riesgos.

Aspectos como la edad y las condiciones médicas subyacentes pueden aumentar las posibilidades de una persona de sufrir una enfermedad grave, hospitalización y muerte debido a la infección por COVID-19. Para los muchos miembros de nuestra comunidad que siguen teniendo un mayor riesgo de COVID-19, recibir una segunda dosis de refuerzo puede comenzar a ayudarlos a sentir la confianza que necesitan para regresar con cautela a una vida más normal.

¿Dónde puedo obtener mi segunda vacuna de refuerzo?

Puede encontrar información sobre proveedores y clínicas de vacunas contra el COVID-19 cerca de usted en la página del Localizador de vacunas contra el COVID del NDDoH . También puede comunicarse con la línea directa de NDDoH al 1.866.207.2880 para obtener ayuda. Como recordatorio, puede recibir otras vacunas recomendadas de forma rutinaria (culebrilla, neumocócica) al mismo tiempo que la vacuna COVID-19.

 

Fuente: Pautas de refuerzo de los CDC

Share
This site is registered on wpml.org as a development site.